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    1. to do 2.-ing 3.done 下面从二个方面来复习非谓语动词 1.非谓语动词的七大经典原则 2.非谓语动词解题四大步骤 一.非谓语动词的 七大经典原则 原则一:用作目的状语,原则上要用不定式 1. When asked why he went there, he said he was sent there _____ for a space flight. (2007江西卷) A. training B. being trained C. to have trained D. to be trained 【解析】由于进行航空飞行训练是他被派往那儿的目的, 所以 要用不定式,因此可排除 A 和 B。另外,由于“他” 与“训练”为被动关系,故选 D。 如:She got up very early to tocatch catchup upthe thefirst firstbus. bus. 2. _____ this cake, you’ll need 2 eggs, 175 g sugar and 175 g flour.(2006广东卷) A. Having made B. Make C. To make D. Making 原则二: 用作伴随状语,原则上要用-ing. 3.As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not _____, and asked myself what I was going to do. (2007湖南卷) A. moved B. moving C. to move D. Being moved 【解析】由于与句子主语之间为主动关系,且表示当 时持续了 listen to … do/doing … 一会 儿,故用-ing。句意为:当信号灯变绿时,我站在那儿 一会儿没动,心想自己该怎么办。 4. He sat _____ to her ______ the stairs. A. to listen; to climb B. listening; to climb C. listening; climb D. listening; to climbing 【解析】listen是伴随sat而同时由主语he发出的,所以用ing作伴随状语;listen to 后跟不带to的不定式/-ing作宾补。 -ing形式作伴随状语与 to do作目的状语的区别: 作伴随状语的-ing形式与谓语动词的动作同时发生且 前面常常带一逗号;而作目的状语的不定式的动作要比 谓语动词的动作后发生前面不能用逗号。 用括号里的词的适当形式填空 hoping that the editor 1. Write to the editor, ________ would be able to help her.( hope ) 2.She reached the top of the hill and stopped there _________ on a big rock.( rest ) to rest 3.The secretary worked late into night , preparing ______ a long speech. ( prepare ) To keep 4. ___________ warm, we shut all the windows. ( keep ) 原则三:用作结果状语时,可用-ing或不定式,其原则区 别是,一般用-ing,表示一定逻辑的结果,即结果在意料 之中。不定式用作结果状语表示非逻辑的结果,即结果在 意料之外。 5. The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the entrance,_____ in the natural light during the day. A. to let B. letting C. let D. having let 【解析] 此处用-ing 表示自然而然的结果。 6. Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year,_____ a record US$ 57. 65 a barrel on April 4. A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching 7.He hurried to the station, only ______ that the train had left. (2005广东卷) A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found 【解析】only to do sth 在此表示出人意料的结果。 8. He hurried to the booking office only _____ that all the tickets had been sold out. (2006陕西卷) A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told 原则四:凡是含有被动意义时,原则上要用过去分词。 但是,如果所涉及的动作尚未发生,则用不定式的被动 式;如果所涉及的动作正在进行,则用-ing的被动式. 9.The children talked so loudly at dinner table that I had to struggle _____. (2007浙江卷) A. to be heard B. to have heard C. hearing D. being heard 【解析】根据句意,此处指的是“被听见”,故要用被 动式,因此 可排除 B 和 C。另外,由于“设法被听见”为目的状语,动作在 当时尚未发生,故用不定式,即选 A。 10. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks ______ could be heard outside the classroom. A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed seat vt. C. being opened and closed D. to open and close I seated myself. 【解析】desks 与open and close 之间存在逻辑上的被动关系, fix one’s eyes =I was seated. 又因could be heard ,所以选 -ing的被动式表正在被进行的动作。 =I sat down upon… 11. When she came in, she was surprised to find a stranger _______ at the back of the classroom with his eyes eyes_____upon her. A. seating; fixing B. to seat; fixing C.having seated; fixed D. seated; fixed sitting 原则五:非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语原则上应与 主句主语保持一致. 12. Faced with a bill for $10,000,_____. (2006陕西卷) faced with A. John has taken an extra job B. the boss has given John an extra job C. an extra job has been taken D. an extra job has been given to John (be) faced with… 13. While watching television,_____. (2005全国卷III) A. the door bell rang B. the doorbell rings C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings 【解析】因为 watching 的逻辑主语一定是人,排除选项 A 和 B ;又因在hear后作宾补的是省略了 to 的不定式, 所以选项 D 中的 rings 是错误的。 原则六:强调动作发生在主句谓语动作之前时,原则上要 用完成式(根据情况可用不定式的完成式或—ing的完 成式) 14._____ from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found has in any other countries in the world. A. Being separated B. Having separated C. Having been separated D. to be separated 【解析】因为 Australia 与 separate 是被动关系,且 separate发生在谓语动词 has 之前,所以用-ing的完成 被动式作原因状语。 15. The manager,_____ it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us, left the meeting room. (2005江西卷) A. who has made B. having made C. made D. making 【解析】因为 The manager 与 make 是主动关系, 且 make 发生在谓语 left 之前,所以用-ing的完成式 作状语,having made ... 相当于 who had made... 的意思。 Sb is said to do… 据说… 16.—Li Ming is said ____ abroad. Do you know what country he studied in ? he will study in? A B C he studies in? —Yes, In London. A. to have studied C. to be studying B. to study D. to have been studying 原则七:用于名词后作定语时,原则是: 用不定式,表示动作尚未发生; 用-ing,表示动作正在进行; 用过去分词,表示动作被动、完成。 17.There will be more than three hundred scientists attending the tomorrow. the meeting meeting _____ the day after tomorrow A. hold B. holding C. held D. to be held 18. There are hundreds of visitors visitors _____ in front of the Art Gallery to have a look at Van Gogh’s paintings. (2006上海卷) A. waited B. to wait C. waiting D. wait Things _____ never come again!”I couldn’t help talking to 19. “Things myself. (2007湖南卷) lose vt. A. lost B. losing C. to lost lose D. have lost sb/sth 注:受 the first, the second ... the last 修饰 的名词或代词后原则上要用不定式作定语。 20. —The last one _____ pays the meal. —Agreed!(2007全国I) A. arrived B. arrives C. to arrive D. arriving You are the second to make that mistake. 你是第二个犯这错误的人。 Translate the following sentences into English. 已经 讨论了的问题。 1. 这是一个已经 正在 讨论的问题。 2. 这是一个正在 将要 讨论的问题。 3. 这是一个将要 discussed This is a problem discussed. (已经完成的被动动作) This is a problem being being discussed. discussed (正在进行的被动动作) This is a problem to tobe bediscussed. discussed (将要进行的被动动作) 原则一:用作目的状语,原则上用不定式 . 原则一:用作目的状语,… 原则二:用作伴随状语,…-ing. 原则二:用作伴随状语,原则上用 原则三:用作结果状语,可用-ing/ to do ,原则区别是: … -ing原则三:用作结果状语, 表示一定逻辑的结果,to do 表示非逻辑的结果。 原则四:凡是有被动意义时,原则上要用过去分词。 如果动作尚未发生,则用不定式的被动形式; 原则四:凡是含有被动意义时, … 如果动作正在进行,则用-ing的被动形式。 原则五:非谓语动词作状语时,原则上其逻辑 原则五:非谓语动词作状语时, 主语应与主句主语保持一致。 … 原则六:强调动作发生在主句谓语动作 原则六:强调动作发生在主句谓语动作之前,原则上 要用完成式( -ing 的完成式或不定式的完成式) 之前时, … 原则七:用于名词后作定语,原则是:不定式表示动作尚未发生; 原则七:用于名词后作定语时,… -ing表示动作正在进行:过去分词表示动作完成,被动。 二. 非谓语动词解题 四大步骤 (一)分析句子结构,辨别“谓语与非谓语” 1.______many times , but C ___he still couldn't understand it . 注意连词 A 2. ______many times , he still couldn't understand it . A. Having been told C. He had been told B. Being told D.Though he was told C a hot day, we’d better go swimming. 3.It ___ 4. ____ E a rainy day ; we decided not to go there. A.is D.It being B. to be E. It was C. being F. been 注意标点符号 (二)找逻辑主语 非谓语动词虽不能作谓语,但仍具有动词特点,其 逻辑上的动作执行者就叫做逻辑主语。 1.Walking along the street one day, she saw a little girl running up to her. 2.She is reading a book found on the way. 3.Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa. 4. Convinced of the truth of the reports, he told his colleagues about it. B 1._______ everything into consideration, they ought to have another chance. D into consideration, Everything ______ 2.Everything they ought to have another chance. A.to take C. to be taken B. taking D. taken (三)分析语态 分析语态就是在确定逻辑主语之后,分析非谓语动词 和逻辑主语在搭配使用时是主动还是被动关系。 1. “You can’t catch me !” Jane shouted, _______ away. A. run B. running C.to run D. ran 2. _____ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing (四)分析时态 C ____ 1. The building ____now will be a restaurant . B ________ 2. The building ____ next year will be a restaurant . D ________ 3. The building ______last year is a restaurant. A.having been built B.to be built C.being built D. built 三. 非谓语动词解题步骤 一. 辨别“谓与非谓” 二. 找逻辑主语 三、分析语态 四、分析时态 方法总结: 谓非谓,找主语,析语态,定时态 Practice 1. A railway station is no place for a child _____ alone at night. A. leave B. leaving C. to be leaving D. to be left 2. We were warned _____ the fish which might give us a slight stomach upset. A. not to eat B. not eating C. to eat not D. eating not 3. _ themselves awake they sat on the floor and told each other stories. A. Keep B. Keeping C. To keep D. To have kept 4._____ these children _____ what you want is a science I can tell you! A. Getting; done B. Get; done C. To get; to do D. Getting; to do 5. When you're learning to drive,__ a good teacher makes a big difference. A. have B. having C. and have D. and having 6. A few days after the interview, I received a letter ___ me the job. A. offered B. offering C. to be offering D. having offered 7. The plane crashed,_____ all 200 people aboard. A. killed B. having killed C. killing D. had killed 8. He was always the first _____ and the last _____ the office. A. to come, to leave B. coming, leaving C. to come, left D. coming, left 9. Robert is said _____ one of my classmates the other day, but I don’t know who she is. A. to marry B. to have married C. to be marrying D. being married 10.With everything she needed____, she left the shop. A. buying B. to buy C. bought D. to be bought