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    The Subjunctive Mood 虚拟语气 ㈠语气的定义 语气是动词的一种 形式,它表明说话 人对某一行为或事 情的看法和态度。 ㈡语气的种类 ? 1.陈述语气:表明动作或状态是现实的 确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑 问句和某些感叹句。 We are not ready. Did it rain all day yesterday? What a fine day it is! 2.祈使语气 ? 表明说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令 等。 Be careful! Don’t forget to close the window. Open the door, please. 3,虚拟语气 ? 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实, 而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。 If I were you , I should study English. I wish you could go with me. May you succeed! ㈢虚拟语气在条件从句中的用法。 ? 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句,一类是 虚拟条件句。 真实条件句:假设的情况是有可能发生的。 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. ②虚拟条件句:假设的情况是过去或现在都不 存在的,或将来都不可能发生的。 If he had seen you yesterday,he would have asked you about it. ① Should用于第一三人称 1.与现在事实相反 would表示结果, might表示可能性, could表示能力、允许或 可能性 从句-----过去式(be通常用were), 主句----should (would, could, might)+动词原 形”: If I knew her number I could ring her up. If he were free, he would help us. If he studied at this school, he would know you well. 1.要是你再试一试,你就会成功的。 If you tried again you would succeed 。 2,如果我是只鸟,我就能在天上飞了。 I f I were a bird, I could fly in the sky. Were (是 )you , IShouldn’t 3. If I ___ _____(就不会)buy that coat. Had kill 4.If I ______( 有) a knife,I would ______( 就杀了) you。 2.与将来事实相反或将来的愿望推测 ? 从句----did /should +do /were to do ? 主句-----should/ would/ could/ might +do ? If it rained tomorrow , our picnic would be put off. If he were to come here, he would tell us about it. If he should go to Qing Hua University, he would make full use of his time. 3,与过去事实相反 从句——had done 主句——should/ would/ could/ might +have done If I had left sooner,I would have been on time. 2)要是我们当时早点找到他的话,我们就可以救活 他 If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life. 注意: 1,条件从句的谓语动词为be时, 不管其主语为单数还是复数通常都 用were,但在口语或非正式文体中 的单数第一人称和第三人称后,也 可用was,不过在 If I were you这 样的表达中,通常还是以用were为 宜。 2)当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有were, should, had时,if可省略,而将were, should, had等词置于句首。如: If he should agree to go there, we would send him there. Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. If he had learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. If she were here, she would agree with us Were she here, she would agree with us 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,逐句和从句的 谓语都要用虚拟语气。现将虚拟条件句从句和 主句的动词形式列表如下: 动词形式时间 与现在事实相反 从句 did(be 的过去式 常用were) Had+done 主句 would Should Could might would Should Could +动词原形 与过去事实相反 +have done Might 与将来事实可能相 did/should+do 反,或将来的愿望 Were to do would Should Could might +动词原形 虚拟语气的其他用法 一,wish后的宾语从句 1.与现在事实相反------一般过 去时 2.与过去事实相反-------过去完 成时 3.与将来事实相反--------过去 将来时 he would try again 1.I wish_____________________________ (他再试一次) were as young as you 和你一样年轻) 2.I wish I ____________________( I had seen that film 3.I wish__________________________( 我 看过这部电影) I would become a doctor 4.I wish_____________________________(我 将来当个医生) 二,advise, ask, demand, desire, decide, insist(坚决要求) , order, propose, request, suggest(建议) 表示请 求、要求、命令或建议等意义的动词所接 的宾语从句一般用虚拟语气,起虚拟语气 的结构为:(should) + 原形动词 The teacher advised that we should make good use of every minute here. The Party asked that we should serve the people with our heart and soul 三,It is suggested / requested / desired / proposed /…. that …后接主语从句时 advice, desire, order, plan, , recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion, wish充当句子的主语后接同位语从 句,或表语从句时 从句中都用(should)+do We followed his advice that we should ask our teacher for help He told us his idea that he should go to university His suggestion is that we should do our work more carefully. Their plan is that they should build a new factory in their hometown. It is suggested that he should go to visit his old friend. 四,as if (though) 从句用虚拟语气 与现在事实相反——一般过去时; 与过去事实相反——过去完成时; 表示将来的可能性不大——would (might, could)+动词原形: you were my son. 你是我儿子) I love you as if_____________( They had met each other before They talked as if__________________________ (以前见过面) They would go to moon They are happy as if_________________________( 他 们要去月球了) 五,It is (high) time that 到了…..的时候了 It is time that + 过去时 It was time that +过去完成时 六 , would rather 宁愿,用法同 wish, as if 七,if only 要是…就好了,用法同上 Exercise, 1,The teacher agreed to the suggestion that the students ________ two weeks to prepare for the exam. A. give B. should give C. √ be given D. would be given 2,Wang Ling, one of my friends, is very good at English. He speaks English as if he ________ an Englishman. A. √ were B. would be C. have been D. had been √ 3,________ more careful, his ship would not have sunk. A. If the captain were B. Had the √ captain been C. Should the captain beD. If the captain would have been 4, If only I ________ how to operate an electronic computer as you do. A. had known B. would know C. should know D. knew √ 5, Robert wishes that he ________ business instead of history when he was in university. A. studies B. studied C. has studiedD. had studied √ 6, Mr Li required the computer equipment referred ________ used in every classroom. A. should be B. have to be D. to being √C. to be Thank you! Bye-bye!